By Agamemnon Despopoulos
This fifth version has been completely revised by way of content material and association of the didactic fabric; just about all of the color illustrations were drawn anew for more desirable readability. The broad introductory bankruptcy makes a speciality of points of cytophysiology. because of the significantly elevated textual content and stronger illustrative fabric, useful connections are simply well-known; new suggestions and present advances in learn are taken totally under consideration.
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This fifth version has been completely revised when it comes to content material and association of the didactic fabric; just about all of the color illustrations were drawn anew for better readability. The huge introductory bankruptcy specializes in elements of cytophysiology. as a result significantly improved textual content and enhanced illustrative fabric, practical connections are simply well-known; new innovations and present advances in study are taken totally under consideration.
The Scientists advisor to Cardiac Metabolism combines the fundamental thoughts of substrate metabolism, rules, and interplay in the telephone and the organism to supply a accomplished creation into the fundamentals of cardiac metabolism. this crucial reference is the appropriate instrument for novices in cardiac metabolism, supplying a simple knowing of the metabolic approaches and allowing the newcomer to instantly speak with the specialist as substrate/energy metabolism turns into a part of initiatives.
В учебном пособии изложены основы анатомии и физиологии человека.
Extra resources for A. Color Atlas of Physiology
70). [Ca2+]i oscillation is characterized by multiple brief and regular [Ca2+]i increases (Ca2+ spikes) in response to certain stimuli or hormones (Ǟ B). The frequency, not amplitude, of [Ca2+]i oscillation is the quantitative signal for cell response. When low-frequency [Ca2+]i oscillation occurs, CaM-kinase II, for example, is activated and phosphorylates only its target proteins, but is quickly and completely deactivated (Ǟ B1, B3). High-frequency [Ca2+]i oscillation results in an increasing degree of autophosphorylation and progressively delays the deactivation of the enzyme (Ǟ B3).
Of a chemical reaction) equals the sum of the work absorbed (+W) or performed (–W) by a system and the heat lost (–Q) or gained (+Q) by the system. 22] ∆U ϭ work absorbed (W) Ϫ heat lost (Q) [J]. ) Heat is transferred in all chemical reactions. The amount of heat produced upon conversion of a given substance into product X is the same, regardless of the reaction pathway or whether the system is closed or open, as in a biological system. For caloric values, see p. 230. Enthalpy change (∆H) is the heat gained or lost by a system at constant pressure and is related to work, pressure, and volume (∆H = ∆U + p ⋅ ∆V).
Pa is higher than Pe (Ǟ A). , in the reaction Nutrition disorders, sport training, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism The free energy liberated upon hydrolysis of ATP is used to drive hundreds of reactions within the body, including the active transmembrane transport of various substances, protein synthesis, and muscle contraction. According to the laws of thermodynamics, the expenditure of energy in all of these reactions leads to increased order in living cells and, thus, in the organism as a whole.
A. Color Atlas of Physiology by Agamemnon Despopoulos