By John Kunkel
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Extra resources for America's Trade Policy Towards Japan: Demanding Results (Routledge Advances in International Political Economy, 11)
Despite realism’s reification of power politics and the relative gains motive, both the instruments of power and the distribution of gains remain surprisingly under-specified in explanations of American post-war economic hegemony (Snidal 1985). Was the United States a ‘benevolent’ hegemon – accepting the burdens of leadership as implied by Kindleberger (1973) in his collective action approach to international economic relations – or was it ‘coercive’ – forcing weaker states to make contributions for the maintenance of the post-war liberal economic order?
Under Hull, the State Department criticised the incoherence of US policy, using historical precedent to justify a centralisation of policy through the RTAA of 1934 (Haggard 1988: 100). Indeed, as Goldstein (1993: 143) suggests: Hull was successful at trade liberalization only because his ideas were consonant with the new institutional structures. In retrospect, his support of executive delegation was probably more critical to the history of the trade reform program than was his commitment to liberalism.
8 Prior to the RTAA, trade was defined politically as a ‘distributive issue’. A universal norm of ‘reciprocal non-interference’ ensured that virtually all requests for protection by group interests were accommodated through generalised log-rolling. The periodic transfer of tariff-cutting authority to the president after 1934 helped to alter the political definition of trade policy by weakening this general right to protection. The institutional definition of trade shifted more towards that of a ‘regulatory issue’ characterised by conflictive patterns of behaviour.
America's Trade Policy Towards Japan: Demanding Results (Routledge Advances in International Political Economy, 11) by John Kunkel