New PDF release: Ancient Egypt (Ancient Civilizations)

By Sherman Hollar

ISBN-10: 1615305238

ISBN-13: 9781615305230

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Civil war followed Caesar’s assassination, and the Roman Empire was divided. Mark Antony, as ruler of the eastern empire, summoned Cleopatra to Tarsus, in Asia Minor, to answer charges that she had aided his enemies. The queen arrived, dressed as Venus, on a magnificent river barge. Fascinated by her, Antony followed her to Alexandria. The Roman fleet of Octavian clashes with the combined Roman-Egyptian fleet commanded by Mark Antony and Cleopatra in the battle of Actium. MPI/Archive Photos/Getty Images 44 The Dynasties of Egypt After returning to Rome, Antony married Octavia, sister of Octavian (a powerful politician who later changed his name to Augustus and became Rome’s first emperor), though he still loved Cleopatra, who had borne him twins.

Three small pyramids built for Khufu’s queens stand near his pyramid. Also nearby are several temples and rectangular tombs built for other relatives and courtiers. The Egyptian rulers ordered the pyramids to be built because they feared their remains would be disturbed by grave robbers. They chose a site on the west side of the Nile River because they believed that the home of the dead was toward the setting sun. The burial 33 Ancient Egypt chambers were placed under the exact centers of the pyramids.

Some gods, such as Amen and Osiris, were always represented in purely human form. Others were pictured as animals or with human bodies and animal heads. Thus Horus was worshiped in the form of a hawk, or falcon, or of a hawk-headed man. Thoth was an ibis, Khnemu was a ram, and Hathor was a cow. The sun had various symbols—the obelisk, the sacred scarab beetle, the uraeus cobra, and the sun disk. Certain sacred animals were carefully kept in the temples. When Egyptian civilization decayed in its very late days, the people came to regard every animal of these species as sacred.

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Ancient Egypt (Ancient Civilizations) by Sherman Hollar

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