By K A Athanasiou; Eric M Darling; Jerry C Hu
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One can expect that impact injuries occur on a time scale an order of magnitude smaller, resulting in stress rates of 1000 MPa/s. Based on data such as these, Aspden and associates  put forth a definition for injurious impact loading as time to peak load on the order of milliseconds plus one of the following: (1) stress rate greater than 1000 MPa/s, (2) strain rate greater than 500 s−1 , or (3) loading rates in excess of 100 kN/s. The thresholds of forces and timescales required to produce injuries are important in determining the type of injury sustained and for modeling impact and injurious compression experimentally.
Clinical studies of patients with meniscectomy have shown that, after twenty one years, mild radiographic changes were found in 71% of the knees, while more advanced changes were seen in 48% . As described above, causes of OA have been categorized into primary and secondary. Trauma was first linked to OA by Hunter in 1743 . Athletes with a history of joint injury have higher incidence of OA than their peers . ACL injury causes immediate changes in biomechanics [236– 238], which may lead to OA [239, 240].
The average age for patients undergoing arthroscopy that exhibit cartilage defects in the knee is 43, and, combined with the demographical data on adolescent cartilage injuries as discussed previously, the need to create a repair tissue that can last several decades is a major goal . The earliest attempts at cartilage regeneration involved transplanting either minced cartilage tissue or dissociated chondrocytes . Surgical solutions to cartilage defects typically include surface abrasion, microfracture, and debridement, which all can reduce symptoms.
Articular cartilage tissue engineering by K A Athanasiou; Eric M Darling; Jerry C Hu